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The large amounts of litter ending up in the oceans pose environmental, economic, sanitary and aesthetic problems. Marine litter results mainly from poor solid waste management practices, both at sea and on land, and from lack of awareness of the public at large. While prevention is the priority, the removal of marine litter that is already present in the environment should be considered. The workshop discussed the results of the recently held international conference on marine litter (see previous article) and edfocus on critical success factors for litter removal initiatives and how they can be encouraged.